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Portland   Seattle  1896  Tacoma    Vancouver     1896

EJP's Portland Google Map http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?hl=en&ie=UTF8&msa=0&msid=202426891661796490166.00049a10a8b07de1f2289&z=19
Mary Glen's planned transcontinental train trip 
Chicago to San Francisco via Denver and Salt Lake City is still in the planning stage, but I did get to Vancouver and Portland in June 2014 [traveling by Bolt Bus from Vancouver to Seattle and Portland] and then by train from Portland to San Jose California.  Wonderful to see amazing forests, geology, mountains and the Northwest.  Great to visit with Honk! friends in Vancouver and college classmate Karla in Oregon.  Not too much left of EJ Phillip's towns, but a great sense of place, beautiful gardens and water views. Thanks to college classmate Karla for planning expeditions throughout Portland, opera and farmers'' markets in Astoria and environs and driving along the Columbia Gorge, visiting gardens, bookstores, wineries and having wonderful food. Powell's had Portland history books I couldn't have found elsewhere.  Need to get back to see more of Portland, Seattle and Vancouver.    previous: Railroads June 1890

[in envelope postmarked "Nampa  Idaho" Jun 21 1890.]  Friday AM June 20th 

My dear Son 

We are on the Northwestern road going up to Portland.  Slept under blankets last night and plaid shawl around my shoulders.  We are going through Alkali plains and sage brush (as on the U[nion] Pacific Road).  Think we shall soon reach some Mountain scenery.  I am told it rains five days a week in Seattle.  We are due in Portland tomorrow 6:40 AM. Stay there until Sunday 11 AM when we start to Tacoma to arrive there in the Evening. No one complains very much of fatigue.  We have had no excessive heat or dust to contend with, and that accounts for our good feelings.  Just commenced raining.  First time I have seen rain so far West, but then I am a month earlier than heretofore.  It will keep the dust down.  I enclose a bit of Mountain flower for Neppie with my love and Kisses.  Love and Kisses to you both from your loving Mother 

Enclosed is a pressed small spray of flowers which could be sage -- still has a purplish cast to it. 

Portland, Oregon
June 21st 1890
Chas. E. Leland 

My dear Son 

Arrived this Morning three hours later than schedule time, but all the better for the delay gave me an opportunity to see some beautiful scenery, which we should have missed had we been on time.  I do not feel anymore tired than after a trip to Phila or M'[iddle]town

We rest here today and night.  At 11 AM tomorrow we leave for Tacoma.  Play there three nights, then the ride to Seattle is short, but after our week here, commencing the 30th we shall be on the train two nights going to San Francisco

This Country is lovely.  Should not mind having to live here.  I telegraphed you and John on my arrival.  I had written that which ever one I telegraphed to was to telegraph the other, but thinking the letters might not have reached you, I thought it best this Morning to telegraph to both.  

You see I am living in a fine house and kept by Chas. Leland.  All furnished in [Charles] Eastlake [Arts and Crafts] style and quite new. [The hotel had opened in less than three months before.]  Will be able to tell you more about the City in a future letter.  Love and Kisses to my darling children, Albert and Neppie from their loving  Mother

One of the wonders of the Pacific Coast is the new Hotel Portland, opened April 7, 1890, at the metropolis of Oregon.King;s Handbook of the United States, Moses King Corp, 1892  https://books.google.com/books?id=3FE6AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Until it was torn down in 1951, the Portland Hotel stood between Southwest Morrison and Yamhill, on Sixth Street, facing the Pioneer Courthouse.  When the parking structure that replaced the hotel was in turn replaced by Pioneer Square in 1984, the iron scrollwork gate that had graced the hotel was incorporated into the design of the new public space. Portland Hotel, Oregon History Project  

Portland Hotel, 1890 - Oregon History Project https://oregonhistoryproject.org/articles/historical-records/portland-hotel-1890/#.X0ifvMhJGUk    more on Portland Hotel 

Wikipedia Portland Hotel  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland_Hotel
Hotel Portland http://www.pdxhistory.com/html/hotel_portland.html  "Portland's most interesting and gracious building" photographs
Portland History http://www.pdxhistory.com/index.html  with photographs, including Union Depot built 1893 1894.

The Marquam Grand Opera House, which specialized in concert music for the elite, opened in 1890 on the north side of Morrison between Sixth and Seventh. Its general manager, Samuel Friedlander, even brought operatic arias and piano recitals to entertain his B’nai B’rith lodge, whose members patronized the opera house. http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/narratives/subtopic.cfm?subtopic_ID=193 

Philip Augustus Marquam (1823-1912)  built the Marquam Opera House
later renamed the Orpheum Theater. The theater was torn down in the 1970s. It was located in the downtown Portland block bounded by Broadway, Alder, 6th and Morrison streets, which block was owned by Marquam. In the south half of the same block he built an eight-story office building, the Marquam Building, completed around 1892, next to his home, a small house at the southeast corner of the block.[2] The office building and house were later torn down and replaced by the Northwestern National Bank Building.[2]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Augustus_Marquam  
Took the tram from downtown Portland to the top of Marquam Hill.  http://www.gobytram.com/

Portland programme, Marquam Grand Opera House
  We did get to Marquam Nature Park           Rose garden   Karla's Garden
Marquam Mosaic http://paulgerald.com/portland-hikes/portlands-beautiful-marquam-mosaic/  Participatory public Art installation based on native flora and fauna

Tacoma, Washington

TACOMA,  Wash,  June 23rd 1890  

My dear Son. 

Yes, I think there was an effort made by Mr. [H.C.] Jarrett to have the train stop at Middletown.  I had told him, and also the conductor who helped Neppie up on the steps, that I was very anxious to see you as I was going so far away. He was the sleeping car conductor. I also spoke to the Passenger Conductor, or train conductor I suppose, would be the right name for him, and then again to Mr. Jarrett - so annoyed them all. I got my desire complied with, and was very glad I could. 

We arrived here last Evening about 7. We passed through a fertile country and Industry flourishing on all sides.  It is astonishing to see the many new villages being built up along the line of railroad from here to Portland. We have a beautiful Theatre to appear in.  

I shall try to see something of the place tomorrow. They have street cars here worked by electricity.  I shall see what I can through a side on these. There is a large Indian Reservation here that I hope to visit before leaving.   I have addressed two of the Morning papers to you. I believe there is an afternoon paper published also, but I have not yet seen it. 

Crane & Co played here last week and yesterday met them halfway between here and Portland. Both companies got out of the cars, and each greeted the other very warmly and ended in singing "Auld Lang Syne" in a very high key. It was very funny, and was thoroughly enjoyed by ourselves, as well as the natives, the latter looking on in blank amazement, but I do not think there were a quarter of the number Mr. Jarrett gives in his interview with the newspaper reporter.  I think 40 would be nearer the mark than 400. Of Cranes Company whom I knew were Mr. & Mrs. [William Henry] Crane, Mrs. Foster, Mrs. Lizzie Hudson Collier, Mrs. Georgie Drew Barrymore, Mr. [George F.] DeVere and Mr. Herbert who was at the Chestnut St Theatre [Philadelphia] during my last season at that house. 

This is a great country up here! And this is a very picturesque town. The cut of the hotel shows the front looking toward  Puget Sound.  The street and general entrances are on the other side, the building being alike on both sides.  I have a very nice room with a view of the surrounding hills and valleys.  Wish all my children were here to see it. 

We give 4 performances here, then to Seattle for the rest of the week. We hear that the hotel there is better than this one, but the theatre will not be so comfortable. A new theatre is being built there, but will not be finished in time for us. The climate here I think agrees with me better than that of San Francisco, and all the company are astonished at feeling so well. Will write again before going to Seattle.  Until then with love to my dear children Albert & Neppie I remain their loving Mother 

T H E  T A C O M A  
June 25th 1890

My dear Son.

At breakfast was surprised by hearing from Miss [Ada] Dyas that we do not go to Seattle.  Instead of Seattle we may go to Victoria, B.C., leaving here by boat tomorrow Morning at 8, arriving at Victoria at 4 PM.  Eight hours ride by boat.  I suppose I shall learn at Matinee whether this is a settled fact or not.  And will leave this open until then. 

The City Directory is billed for this place tomorrow night and will not be bought out or we could finish the week here.  I wish we could.  I do not like going by boat.  I am afraid of being seasick. Last night not being on the bill I went to bed at 9.  Had an extended rest and sleep -- feel first class this Morning.  On Monday night we had $1500 in the house.  House fine last night and "take" good for both performances today.  I will enclose you a Portland programme for next week.  It is funny.  Guess we will have to play in Chinese yet!  With love and Kisses to my darling children, Albert & Neppie, from their loving Mother

After Matinee 
Well we do go to Seattle for two nights -- returning and playing here on Saturday night.  Do not take our hotel trunks with us. Good Matinee for "Saints & Sinners".  Last night house $1400.  Big take tonight for "Capt. Swift". 

EJP's Seattle Google Map http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&msa=0&msid=202426891661796490166.0004995fcfeaa635fda58&ll=47.599352,-122.333756&spn=0.002453,0.006947&z=18

The Rainier  
Seattle Washington
June 26th 1890

My dear Son. 

Well I am in Seattle! at the above hotel which stands on a high hill overlooking Puget Sound -- the "Mediterranean of America".  The view from my window is indeed very beautiful.  The City, like Tacoma, is built on a succession of hills, but I think the site is prettier than Tacoma.  And I should think healthier.  There is more swampland lying around Tacoma but the water is salt in the Sound so may not be aquish [malarial]. 

We left Tacoma at 8 this Morning by boat, only two hours ride by boat and less by rail.  We were told last night that we played here two nights and returned to play S[aints] & S[inners] on Saturday night in Tacoma.  The Seattle Morning papers say we play three nights and a matinee.  They (the management) have got things nicely mixed up this week. Did well in Tacoma though, 1st night, $1500, 2nd $1400.  Matinee $800 and last night was certainly not less than $1400.  Over $5000 in four performances -- not bad, eh! 

Met a Mr. Bushbell on the boat this Morning who has been residing here a year.  Says he wouldn't go back East to live for any consideration.  He is a New York man too.  Through his influence 41 persons have come out here to live.  He is very enthusiastic over this part of the Country.  The Climate is so even all the year round.  I have been feeling well since my arrival anyway.  Suppose it must be the Climate.  Love and Kisses to Neppie and Albert from their loving  Mother

Seattle map 1890 http://davidrumsey.artselect.com/perl/frChooseSize?artID=21656&collectionID=4709  The Great Seattle Fire had destroyed 25 plus blocks of downtown in June 1889.
Seattle history http://www.pdxhistory.com/html/seattle.html

Portland, Oregon
July 1st 1890 

My dear daughter Neppie.

Since I left Boston I have been on the move all the time, and the past two weeks have been spent on railroads & in theatres.  We are here for a week, and although we are to give eight performances, still it seems a rest to be in one spot for even a week.  We give three Matinees, one tomorrow and another on Friday -- being the 4th of July -- and one on Saturday, but we do not play Saturday night, as we leave by 6 PM train for San Francisco where we will be stationed for five weeks. I am afraid if the heat continues, that it will injure our business for the rest of the week.  This is the only hot weather we have met since leaving New York, and therefore we ought not to complain.  Perhaps this will be over before we leave for San Francisco -- if not we shall have a hot, dusty journey down the coast. 

I was very glad to be able to say goodbye to you in passing Middletown.  I was afraid they would not give me any satisfaction about it, and until we got there I was in doubt of even seeing you.  I thought the train might rush past so quick that I would not be able to see you sufficiently to recognize you.  But all turned out very nice.  And the conductor was indeed very kind. The company had a joke on me for Kissing Albert.  Some said they thought the boiler had burst -- others that one of the big trunks had fallen off the train.  But they were all very much interested in the train being stopped for me to see my son!  

We have a very pleasant party indeed.  There are 24 of us and when so many people are thrown together, there is usually some disagreeable element amongst them, but so far everyone is agreeable, and our railroad journeys have been quite pleasant and enjoyable. 

I am of course delighted to hear from Albert that your health is as good as can be expected "under the circumstances".  He tells me that your Mama does not yet know.  I think when you have told her, you will learn that she has had very strong suspicions of it for sometime.  We Mothers can read between the lines very accurately, and I do not think anyone could keep your Mama in the dark very long. You have only about four months now, and will not have any too much time to get ready in.  I fully appreciate your feelings for your Mama, but again she may feel badly at you for not telling her [that Neppie was pregnant].   

From Hattie you may expect one embroidered flannel shirt and several pairs of shoes.  She will have plenty of time for fancy work while at Cape May.  And in August will pay you a visit when she will give you the benefit of her experience. You ought now to secure the services of a good monthly nurse.  If you leave it too late, it may be difficult to find one that would be desirable to have around.  I wish I could be nearer to you and look out for these things for you, but that cannot be at present.  So I can only suggest & advise you.  The last month you will not feel much like sewing, so you had better think about it now, and get it over.  With love and Kisses to my dear children, Albert and Neppie, from their loving Mother

Portland, Oregon
July 5th 1890

My dear Son.

We are to leave here today at 6PM and are due in S.F. on Monday at 7:45 AM.  A long ride! two nights on the train. 

Aunt Jack is the bill for this afternoon. The 4th was celebrated here in good old Yankee style.  So many processions, fireworks &c were given that it rather interfered with our business, our Matinee being only $400.25.  Last night I suppose, was more than double that amount, so not so bad for one days work.  Hope we shall do as well in California as in Washington  & Oregon. 

The change of weather the past two days has given us all a little shaking up in the way of "Summer Complaint".  I was quite queer yesterday and had two performances, but I am better today.  The first taken was Miss [Ada] Dyas on Monday night.  Fortunately she did not have to appear on Tuesday night, and was able to doctor herself up -- she was really very ill -- the worst case amongst us, but she is quite well now.  I hope your birthday gift reached you in time.  Love and Kisses to my dear children, Albert and Neppie from their ever loving  Mother 

I took the train in June 2014 from Portland, leaving at 2:30 pm and spent one night on the train -- getting into Oakland around 8:30 am and went onto San Jose.  Lovely dining car with white tablecloths and good food and company. Amazing scenery, but limited cell phone reception. 

Summer Complaint seems to be gastrointestinal, judging by a Boston Globe ad of Sept 1887, saying that "Cholera Morbus, Cramps, Colic, Diarrhoea, Summer Complaints and Dysentery all cured by a teaspoonful of Perry Davis Pain Killer.

next; San Francisco  previous: Los Angeles 1896

Portland,  Oregon
H.C. Bowers, Manager 
Sept 15th 1896

My dear Son, 

Your letter gave me great pleasure to hear you had enjoyed the visit of your sister & her family.  I am pleased to hear that you thought John had improved in health and appearance.  I think you are quite right in saying John eats too many sweet things,  That is, and has been the trouble with the whole family.  John scarcely ever finished a meal at his own table, that he does not get up, go the cupboard and bring some preserves, no matter what he has eaten, to finish up with. 

I felt pretty tired out on reaching this hotel yesterday 8:30 AM having been two nights on the train, but I pulled through last night all right, and had a refreshing night's rest.  We had a splendid house last night.  First night in ten weeks that the theatre has been open.  The Public was hungry for a show I guess.  I hope this and tomorrow night's will be as well attended.   Wish we were booked here for a week, Hotel and Theatre both comfortable, and only across the street from each other.  We leave 9AM on Thursday for Tacoma, about 4 hours ride by rail.  From there by boat to Victoria on Friday.  On Saturday by boat to Vancouver, back by boat to Seattle for Monday and Tuesday next - and from there to Salt Lake another two nights on train.  

From there to Kansas City. which will take two, if not three on train.  But then the hardest part of the travel will be over, but by that time it will have been pretty severe.  And I imagine rather exhaustive to the treasury.  But we have our salaries up to date and have no right to criticise our management. I hear that Chas Frohman is to be in St Louis while we are there.  His Stock Co will be there also and it is to rehearse them in some new play that he goes there.  I don't suppose he will bother much with us.  Love and Kisses to Ted, Neppie and yourself from your loving  Mother 

Union Station Portland opened in  1896  http://www.splintercat.org/UnionStation/UnionStation.html   When the first transcontinental train rolled into Portland on September 11, 1883, the Oregonian described the ensuing celebration as “the greatest display ever witnessed in this city.” The man largely responsible for the completion of the transcontinental line was Henry Villard.  https://oregonhistoryproject.org/articles/historical-records/henry-villard-1835-1900/#.WkxXdd_tyM8

Vancouver and Victoria
Vancouver Google Map
I was in Vancouver in June 2014 for an SLA conference, and went early to spend time with friends who had stayed with me for Somerville's Honk! festival of activist street bands.  Had drinks in Gastown at Steamworks, and stayed at a hotel on West Hasting and Hornby St. Lots of new construction, but was very much in the neighbourhood where EJP stayed and performed.  Thanks to Devo Faber for photos and his gracious hospitality.

No EJP letter from Victoria, but I did get there from Vancouver, by ferry thanks to Bryan Siver Victoria BC ferry building across st from Parliament Buildings, went to Craigdarroch Castle https://thecastle.ca/  an 1890's Romanesque Gilded Age Dunsmuir family home, with beautiful stained glass and period furniture.   
Construction of the BC Parliament buildings started in 1893 and was not complete until 1897, so EJP undoubtedly saw them from the outside, but not inside as I could. Guides at the Parliament building told me they boat would have docked right across the street.  Probably no totem poles in Victoria or Vancouver in 1896. 
Tea at the Empress (1908) hotel. 

Stanley Park history http://vancouver.ca/parks-recreation-culture/stanley-park-history.aspx

It seems possible that EJP heard the nine o'clock gun in Vancouver, a cannon that is shot every night at 21:00 (9 p.m.) PT. The crests of King George III and Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave, at the time the cannon was cast, are on the barrel. The gun is a 12-pound[1]  muzzle- loaded naval cannon … in about 1894, it was brought to  Stanley Park by the Department of Marine and Fisheries to warn fishermen  of the 18:00 Sunday close of fishing. … The 21:00 firing was later established as a time signal for the general population and to allow the chronometers of ships in port to be accurately set.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9_O%27Clock_Gun  I certainly heard it.  When did it begin firing daily?
Mary at Stanley Park with totem poles
   Vancouver from Stanley Park  Mary Bryan Queen Elizabeth Park  Howe & Dunsmuir Hornby St

Telephone 222 
P.O. Box 572
Vancouver, B.C.
r 19th 1896 [Saturday]

My dear Son, 

We arrived here by boat this Morning at 9 o'clock, but I did not get up here to this hotel until 10:30.  We left  Victoria at  2 AM having gone to the boat after performance and went to bed, but the boat did not leave until  2 AM.  We return the same way tomorrow.  Going from here to Victoria, change boat there and go through to Tacoma, or else we would have to get off the boat in Seattle at 4 AM, not a pleasant hour but by going through we get an undisturbed nights rest and leave for Seattle at 9.  Ride two hours on the water and get there at 11 AM Monday.  Play there Monday and Tuesday and then turn our faces homeward.  By the time this reaches you we shall be about leaving for Kansas City.  Then I shall be over 1500 miles nearer to you.  

I suppose you are by this time keeping bachelor's hall?  It will be lonesome for you, but I hope the change will do Neppie good.  Had a letter from Hattie in which she says she has not yet heard when to expect Neppie, but hopes to see her soon.   

We had a fine house last night in Victoria.  Arrived there 5:30 PM and boarded the boat at 12.  Boat started for this place at  2 AM.  Did not give me much time to get an idea of Victoria. I shall be glad when we reach Kansas City.  Will have a few nights rest and hard travel will be over.  Love and Kisses to Neppie and Ted and Albert from their loving   Mother 

This is the first (and only)  telephone number to show up.

Sept 26 1896 Salt Lake City "On Sunday Morning in Vancouver, BC Mr. [Daniel] Frohman invited me with three others of the company to take a drive in  Forest Park, and a more beautiful drive I never enjoyed.  The grand old trees & the water views were beautiful"  Was Forest Park Stanley Park?  It certainly is a forested park, long logged with "monumental" trees.

An 1896 Vancouver City Directory does not give a street address for the Manor House Hotel, but lists Dansmuir & Pend A Williams mgr., Clive P Wolley prop. http://bccd.vpl.ca/browse/title/1896/Vancouver_City_Directory
1890 City Directory listed Howe and Dunsmuir [see photo for now] as the address.  No theatre mentioned, but possibly Vancouver Opera House 761 Granville [at Robson] St. "
was Vancouver’s principal theatre for touring companies" (1891 demolished 1969) http://world-theatres.com/

Seattle, Washington 1896

Seattle,  Wash  Septr 22nd 1896 

My dear Son,  

We arrived here yesterday about 11 AM.  Had a foggy trip through Georgian Bay and Puget Sound.  All the beautiful views of the scenery were lost.  We have had fog ever since we reached Portland.  We leave here at  4 AM for Portland, remain there for seven hours and then start for Salt Lake.  Two nights or rather three, counting tonight on the train.  I do not think the trains are as tiresome as the boat.  We had to take three to get here from Vancouver, B.C. and all were propellers.  And the pumping noise of the machinery was too tiresome for comfort. 

Who are you going to vote for?  And who will be the next President?  Tell me all about it.  I suppose John goes for McKinley.  What is [Senator] D.B. Hill driving at?  I think he is going to astonish us by and by.  He is playing a deep game for something. 

I suppose if I keep well, I shall not see any of you before December.  Nearly five months since we parted, and what a lot of ground I have been over since then, and have still three thousand miles to cover before reaching you.  Love and Kisses to you my dear Son from your loving  Mother

Occidental Hotel, Pioneer Square 1881- slide show http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_Id=7081

Wikipedia places Georgian Bay in Ontario, and the Straits of Georgia in Puget Sound. Puget Sound includes Metropolitan Seattle. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strait_of_Georgia   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_Bay

David Bennett Hill  1843=1910 Governor of New York 1885-1892. Senator 1892-1897, candidate for President 1892 http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/hill2.html#R9M0J0HU0   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_B._Hill

The Democratic National Convention at Chicago 7-11 July 1896
  New York Senator David B. Hill, a loyal Cleveland man, moved that the convention express its support for the current Democratic administration. The motion failed miserably, and free-silver men wildly celebrated their victory. In addition, the convention passed an indignant resolution protesting Cleveland's intervention to squelch Chicago's Pullman strike. Republicans dubbed this the "anarchy plank," linking it to the Civil War doctrine of states' rights and to fears of labor unrest. ...Gold Democrats faced a difficult choice. Some, like David Hill, sat quietly through the campaign, awaiting another year when they hoped economic conservatives would regain control of the party. Hill, when asked about his party affiliations, allegedly said he was "still a Democrat--very still."  http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/democrats.html   

East Portland Waterfront 1898 Here, Mt. Hood rises behind the East Portland waterfront in 1898.  A barge and a steamship can be seen in the photo at lower right. .. In this photo, the outlying areas of the city are still primarily to the west of Mt. Tabor.  Even within the city, parcels of undeveloped land dot the landscape. 

next: Salt Lake City

Pratt, Laurence, I Remember Portland 1899-1915; A Wild Look at Sturdy Days Portland OR: Metropolitan Printing Co., 1965,
Price, Larry W. Portland's Changing Landscape, Prepared for the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers April 22-26, 1987, Occasional Paper No. 4 Dept. of Geography, Portland State University, 1987
Vaughan, Thomas and George A. McMath, A Century of Portland Architecture, Portland OR: Oregon Historical Society, 1967

Abbott, Carl, From Urban Frontier to Metropolitan Region: Oregon's Cities from 1870 to 2008, 2009 http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=usp_fac

Oregon Historical Society, Oregon History Project http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/narratives/index.cfm?nar_ID=0008DCB1-5F8A-1EA5-B96080B05272006C
Portland History http://www.pdxhistory.com/
Portland History Streetcars http://www.pdxhistory.com/html/streetcars.html
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Portland,_Oregon#Late_19th_century

Museum of History and Industry, Seattle http://mohai.org/visit/
Seattle Parks History http://www.seattle.gov/parks/history/
Underground Seattle http://www.undergroundtour.com/about/history.html  Pioneer Square
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Seattle_before_1900
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Seattle_before_1900#Railroad_rivalry_and_encroaching_civilization
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Seattle_before_1900#The_Great_Seattle_Fire  1889  Great Seattle Fire http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Seattle_fire

History of Metropolitan Vancouver has a chronology including 1896 http://www.vancouverhistory.ca/chronology3.htm
Vancouver Historical Society http://www.vancouver-historical-society.ca/
Vancouver Public Library, Historical Photographs of BC http://www.vpl.ca/historicalphotos
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Vancouver#Early_Growth

Last revised august  28,  2020

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